Louis Boulanger, Lenore

Date: 1830's

Lenore, sometimes translated as Leonora, Leonore or Ellenore, is a poem written by German author Gottfried August Bürger in 1773, and published in 1774. in the Göttinger Musenalmanach. Lenore is generally characterised as being part of the 18th century Gothic ballads, and although the character that returns from its grave in the poem is not considered to be a vampire, the poem has been very influential on vampire literature. William Taylor, who published the first English translation of the ballad, would later claim that "no German poem has been so repeatedly translated into English as Ellenore".

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Louis Boulanger, The Last Day of a Condemned Man (Le Dernier Jour d'un Condamne)

Date: c. 1830

Illustration for The Last Day of a Condemned Man (Le Dernier Jour d'un Condamne) a short novel by Victor Hugo. The novel recounts the thoughts of a man condemned to die. Victor Hugo wrote this novel to express his feelings that the death penalty should be abolished.

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Edward Burne-Jones, The Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon

Museo de Arte de Ponce. The Luis A Ferré Foundation Inc, Ponce, Puerto Rico

Date: 1881–98
Technique: Oil on canvas, 277.5 x 635 cm

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Lancelot Speed, Merlin and Vivien

Illustration from The Legends of King Arthur and His Knights, 1912., 9th edition. Ed. Sir James Knowles, K. C. V. O. London; New York: Frederick Warne and Co., 1912


Jean Louis Théodore Géricault, The Raft of the Medusa (Le radeau de la Méduse)

Musée du Louvre, Paris

Date: 1818-19
Technique: Oil on canvas, 491 x 716 cm


Jean Louis Théodore Géricault, Têtes coupées

Nationalmuseum, Stockholm

Date: 1818
Technique: Oil on canvas, 50 x 61 cm


Follower of François Marius Granet, An Alchemist Applying Bellows to a Furnace

Wellcome Library, London

Date: Unknown
Technique:  Oil on canvas, 35 x 27 cm 


Robert Bateman, The Three Ravens (The Dead Knight)

Private collection

Date: c. 1868
Technique: Watercolour with bodycolour and gum arabic, 28 x 39 cm

This haunting watercolour is probably Bateman’s most famous work and has a distinguished exhibition history. Its melancholic timbre is reminiscent of Burne-Jones’ watercolours of the 1860s such as The Merciful Knight (Birmingham City Art Gallery) and Green Summer (private collection). It was formerly known as The Dead Knight, referring to the figure stretched out in a meadow amid cow-parsley growing beside a spring, but the trio of black birds amongst the trees link the picture to a seventeenth century English folk poem The Three Ravens. It was as The Three Ravens that it was first exhibited at the Dudley Gallery in 1868, one of his fourteen exhibits there between 1865 and 1874. Bateman probably encountered the poem in Francis James Child’s English and Scottish Ballads, published in 1861;

There were three ravens sat on a tree,
They were as blacke as they might be,
With a downe, derrie, derrie, derrie, downe, downe.

Downe in yonder greene field,
There lies a knight slain under his shield.
His hounds they lie downe at his feete,
So well they their master keepe.


Władysław Skoczylas, Sleeping Knights (Śpiący rycerze)

Muzeum Żup Krakowskich w Wieliczce

Date: Unknown
Technique: Woodcut


Philip Hermogenes Calderon, St Elizabeth of Hungary’s Great Act of Renunciation

Tate Britain, London

Date: 1891
Technique: Oil on canvas, 1530 x 2134 mm

Elizabeth of Hungary (1207-1231) was the wife of Lewis, Landgrave of Thuringia. After his death in 1227 during one of the Crusades, she entered a convent and devoted herself to good works. Before becoming a nun, she passed through a spiritual crisis, torn by the need to renounce the world, and therefore her children, in order to fulfil her desire to serve God. Pressed by a domineering monk, Conrad, whose natural affections had been starved by celibacy, Elizabeth finally vowed that 'naked and barefoot' she would follow her 'naked Lord'. Calderon's picture shows this moment of self-abasement.
Calderon took his subject from a play by Charles Kingsley, 'The Saint's Tragedy', first published in 1848. It was based on fact.

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